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Grammar Explorer II (pp.17-18)
A. Had to, were able to, and used to express in this order:
obligation/necessity in the past, ability in the past, habit in the
past (or contrast between present and past realities).
B. The negative of had to, were able to, and used to are in this order:
didn’t have to (absence of obligation), were unable to, and didn’t
Make sure the students use these negative in sentences for
Refer students to SE2 Grammar Reference, pp.197-198.
used to live - used to hunt – used to farm – had to migrate – were
able to survive.
Vocabulary explorer (pp.18-19)
A. rise – originate- start- begin- emerge
B. mature- develop- evolve – expand- spread - flourish –bloom
C. decline- collapse-fall to decay- into ruins- vanish- disappear
Each of the three categories (A-C) contain verbs which are more or
less simmilar in meaning. So it doesn’t really matter which comes first
in its category.
Task 2 (p.18)
1= rise(= emerge) 2= mature 3= disappear (=vanish, fall into ruins,
fall to decay) 4= originated, began, started, emerged) 5= spread (=
expanded) 6= developed (=evolved) 7= evolved 8= flourished
9= declined 10= collapsed (fell into ruins, fell to decay)
Make sure the students realize the importance of appropriacy in the
choice of the words. Synonyms should be used to avoid repetition.