SubhnaAllah, this post contains very informative knowledge.
Akhi - My Brother
2-Ukhti - My Sister
3-JazakAllah khair - May Allah give you Ajar/Sawab for your deed.
4-MashAllah - As God has willed.
5-HayakAllah - May Allah give you life.
6-BarakAllahu Feek - May Allah put baraka in what you are doing.
7- Wa feeka barakallahu - and May Allah bless you.
8-Wa iyyakum - And to you
9-Alhamdu lillah - Praise be to Allah
10-Allah - God (the only Diety)
11-Allahu Akbar - Allah is the Greatest
12-Amanah - Trust
13-Assalamu Alaikum - Peace be upon you--the "official" Islamic greeting.
14-Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh - "Peace and the Mercy and Blessings of God be upon you" Extended form of the above.
16-Astaghfir Allah - I seek forgiveness from Allah (used when mentioning something that goes against the standards of Islam)
17-Ayah/Ayat - Qur'anic verse
18-Bid`ah - Innovation, addition to the religion's essentials
19-Bukhari - One of the most noted compilers of hadith. His collection is 20-known as Sahih Bukhari
21-Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Rahim - In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, Most Merciful
23-Da'wa - Invitation (for humankind to Islam)
24-Du`aa - Supplication
25-Eid - Islamic holiday
26-Fatwa - Islamic legal ruling
27-Fiqh - Islamic law as interpreted by scholars
28-Fitnah - Corruption and disorder, also temptation
29-Hadith - A report of a saying or deed of the Prophet
30-Haj - Pilgrimage
31-Halal - Allowed (per Islamic law)
32-Haram - Forbidden (per Islamic law)
33-Hazrat/Hadrat - Honorable
34-Hijab - Modest way of behavior and dress (including head scarf for women)
35-Imam - Leader
36-Iman - Faith
37-In Shaa Allah - If God wills. (Used when talking about a future event)
38-Injeel - The scripture sent down to Prophet Issa (Jesus)
39-Isnad - Chain of transmitters, the list of people who successively narrated a given hadith
40-Jannah - Paradise
41-Jazakallah Khair - May God grant you what is good. (Often used instead of "Thank you")
42-Jihad - Striving for Islam, whether by peaceful or violent means
43-Jinn - Unseen beings, who, like humans, are given the power to choose between right and wrong
44-Kafir - One who denies the truth. Literally, one who "covers" the truth (sometimes applied to non-Muslims).
45-Khalifah - Caliph: Leader of Muslim nation
46-Khilafah - Caliphate
47-Khutba - Sermon
48-Kufr - Denial of the Truth, rebellion against God
49-La Ilaha Illa Allah - There is no deity but God
50-Ma Shaa Allah - What God has willed! (Usually used to express wonder at Allah's creation)
51-Madhhab - School of jurisprudential thought
52-Makruh - Detested, but not forbidden (per Islamic law)
53-Mandoub - Recommended, but not required (per Islamic law)
54-Mubah - Neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral (per Islamic law)
55-Mushrik - One who commits Shirk
56-Muslim - One who submits to Allah and is a follower of Islam; also, name of one of the most notable hadith scholars. His collection is known as Sahih Muslim
57-Nabi - Prophet
58-Qur'an - The Words of Allah conveyed to us by the Prophet
PBUH - Peace Be Upon Him. Same as SAW
59-RAA - (Radia Allahu Anhu/Anha.) May Allah be please with him/her
60-Ra-sool - Messenger (Prophet to whom a scripture is revealed)
61-Rasool Allah - Messenger of God (used to refer to Prophet Muhammad)
62-Sahaba - Companions of Prophet. Singular is "Sahabi"
63-Sahih - "Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith
64-Salaam - Peace. An abbreviated version of the Islamic greeting
65-Salaat - Prayer
66-SAW - (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam.) Peace Be Upon Him
67-Sawm/Siyam - Fasting
68-Seerah/Sirah - History of the Prophet's life
69-Shahadah - Bearing witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger.
70-Shari'ah - Divine Law
71-Sheikh - Scholar (or any elder and/or respected man)
72-Shirk - Associating partners (e.g. helpers, other gods) with Allah
73-Shura - Consultation among Muslims
74-Subhan Allah - "Glory be to God"
75-Sunna/Sunnah - Tradition of the Prophet
76-Surah/Sura - A Chapter in the Qur'an
78-Tafsir - Interpretation
79-Tawraat - The scripture sent down to Prophet Musa (Moses).
80-Ulama - Religious scholars
81-Umma - Nation, community.
82-Ustadh - Teacher
83-Wassalaam - And peace. It means "goodbye"
84-Zakat - Required charity