Direct / reported speech
Direct speech:Is when we repeat the speech of the speaker without any change E.G: She daid:”I am happy.”
Reported speech:Is when we repeat the speech of the speaker with some changes E.G: She said that she was happy.
When we report questions they change to become statements
“Wh” questions :
He asked me:”What time is it ?”(Direct speech)
He asked me what time it was.(Indirect speech)
He asked him:”Are you hangry?” (Direct speech)
He asked him if he was hungry. (Indirect speech)
-When the reporting verb is in the present simple ,present continuous or future simple we don’t change the tense of the verb between quotations marks .
E.g: he says , is saying , will say:”I live in Adrar.”
R.e: he says , is saying , will say that he lives in Adrar
-When the reportin verb is in the past simple , past continuous or past perfect we change the verb between quotations marks
E.g: He said , was saying , had said:”I live in Adrar.”
R.e: He said , was sayin , had said that he lived in Adrar .
When the reporting verb is in the past said , told, asked……. We change the tense that are between quotations marks as follows
Direct speech Reported speech
-present simple -past simple
-present continuous -past continuous
-present perfect -past perfect
-past simple -past perfect
-must -had to
-have to -had to