The Nobel Prize is the brainchild of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist who was best known in his lifetime for his invention of dynamite. Upon his death in 1896, a reading of his will revealed stipulations that over 90% of his estate should be used to establish prizes in five categories: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace
Now ... what is the noble peace prize ?
The Nobel Peace Prize is an award presented to either an individual or an organization in accordance with Alfred Nobel’s living will. Alfred Nobel, creator of the five Nobel Prizes, was a Swedish inventor and industrialist. He disposed the Nobel Peace Prize in his will to be awarded to “the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." The Nobel Peace Prize differs from the Nobel Prizes in literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology in that it may be presented not only to individuals, but also to organizations that are actively engaged in a process or effort that intends to promote world peace. The prize can be awarded for current efforts, rather than for having accomplished a goal or resolved an issue.
Having been awarded since 1901, the Nobel Peace Prize is considered a very astute recognition, but some past nominees and recipients have created controversy. Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939, but the nomination was retracted. Other nominees include Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, and Yasser Arafat. Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, as did Henry Kissinger and Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the practice of awarding the Nobel Peace Prize based on a work in progress, it stands to reason that some recipients may seem like poor choices in hindsight; however, many recipients have been life-long promoters of peace and human rights, such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Mother Theresa, and the Dalai Lama
An individual or organization may be nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by any qualifying individual, including former recipients, university professors, international leaders, and members of national assemblies. The list of nominees is kept private each year, and though a group or individual may later be referred to as a Nobel Peace Prize nominee, this title bears no official merit. Nominees and recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize between 1901 and 1951 are currently compiled into a database. There are those who publicly criticize the Nobel Peace Prize as being politically slanted to the left and failing to recognize true merit, but even with past controversy, the Nobel Peace Prize continues to be an astute recognition that few would decline to accept.
The winners of nobel peace prize (2001_2010):
Kofi Annan (Ghana) The United Nations and Secretary-General
for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
Jimmy Carter (USA) - former President of the United States
for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
Shirin Ebadi (Iran)
"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
Wangari Maathai (Kenya)
"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei(Egypt)
for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank
"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold Gore Jr
"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"
for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."
"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"
List of all Nobel Peace Prize Winners (1901-2009)
2009 Barack Obama
2008 Martti Ahtisaari
2007 Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.
2006 Muhammad Yunus
2005 Mohamed Elbaradei + International Atomic Energy Agency
2004 Wangari Maathai
2003 Shirin Ebadi
2002 Jimmy Carter
2001 United Nations, Kofi Annan
2000 Kim Dae-jung
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières
1998 John Hume, David Trimble
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, José Ramos-Horta
1995 Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin
1993 Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk
1992 Rigoberta Menchْ Tum
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev
1989 The 14th Dalai Lama
1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
1987 Oscar Arias Sلnchez
1986 Elie Wiesel
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
1984 Desmond Tutu
1983 Lech Walesa
1982 Alva Myrdal, Alfonso Garcيa Robles
1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
1979 Mother Teresa
1978 Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin
1977 Amnesty International
1976 Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan
1975 Andrei Sakharov
1974 Seلn MacBride, Eisaku Sato
1973 Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho
1972 No Award
1971 Willy Brandt
1970 Norman Borlaug
1969 International Labour Organization
1968 René Cassin
1967-66 No Award
1965 United Nations Children's Fund
1964 Martin Luther King
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1962 Linus Pauling
1961 Dag Hammarskjِld
1960 Albert Lutuli
1959 Philip Noel-Baker
1958 Georges Pire
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson
1956 Prize money to Special Fund
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1953 George C. Marshall
1952 Albert Schweitzer
1951 Léon Jouhaux
1950 Ralph Bunche
1949 Lord Boyd Orr
1948 No Award
1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee
1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott
1945 Cordell Hull
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
1939-1943 No Award
1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees
1937 Robert Cecil
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1935 Carl von Ossietzky
1934 Arthur Henderson
1933 Sir Norman Angell
1932 No Award
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler
1930 Nathan Sِderblom
1929 Frank B. Kellogg
1928 No Award
1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde
1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes
1924 -23 No Award
1922 Fridtjof Nansen
1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lange
1920 Léon Bourgeois
1919 Woodrow Wilson
1918 No Award
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
1916-1913 No Award
1913 Henri La Fontaine
1912 Elihu Root
1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried
1910 Permanent International Peace Bureau
1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault
1906 Theodore Roosevelt
1905 Bertha von Suttner
1904 Institute of International Law
1903 Randal Cremer
1902 ةlie Ducommun, Albert Gobat
1901 Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy
Muhammad yunus biography :
« banker to the poor «
Profesor Muhammad yunus was born in 28th june,1940 in the village of Bathua in Bangladesh he established the Grameen bank in Bangladesh in 1983 ,fuelled by the belief that credit is a fundamental human right , his objective was to poor people escape from poverty by providing loans on terms suitable to them and by teaching them a few sound financial principles so they could help themselves.
Martti ahtisaari biography
A diplomat for more than 30 years and president Finland from 1994 to 2004,he was born on june23,1937,in the city of viipuri.he graduated from the university of Oulu in 1959 and joined the ministry for foreign affairs of finland in president ahtisaari held various posts in the ministry’s bureau for technical co- . 1965 operation from 1965 to 1972 and held the position of deputy director ,president ahtisaari assumed the position of secretary of state in the ministry for foreign affairs of finland in 1991
During his tenure as president ,he led finland’s entry into the European union and took an active role in finland’s foreign and security policy
Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei
- The Nobel Peace Prize 2005 –
Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei is the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an intergovernmental organization that is part of the United Nations system. He was appointed to the office effective 1 December 1997, and reappointed to a third term in September 2005.
From 1984, Dr. ElBaradei was a senior staff member of the IAEA Secretariat, holding a number of high-level policy positions, including Agency's Legal Adviser and subsequently Assistant Director General for External Relations.
Dr. ElBaradei was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1942, son of the late Mostafa ElBaradei, a lawyer and former President of the Egyptian Bar Association. He gained a Bachelor's degree in Law in 1962 at the University of Cairo, and a Doctorate in International Law at the New York University School of Law in 1974.
He began his career in the Egyptian Diplomatic Service in 1964, serving on two occasions in the Permanent Missions of Egypt to the United Nations in New York and Geneva, in charge of political, legal and arms control issues. From 1974 to 1978 he was a special assistant to the Foreign Minister of Egypt. In 1980 he left the Diplomatic Service to join the United Nations and became a senior fellow in charge of the International Law Program at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research. From 1981 to 1987 he was also an Adjunct Professor of International Law at the New York University School of Law.
During his career as diplomat, international civil servant and scholar, Dr. ElBaradei has become closely familiar with the work and processes of international organizations, particularly in the fields of international peace and security and international development. He has lectured widely in the fields of international law, international organizations, arms control and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and is the author of various articles and books on these subjects. He belongs to a number of professional associations, including the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law.
In October 2005, Dr. ElBaradei and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for efforts "to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way." In addition, he has received multiple other awards for his work. These include the International Four Freedoms award from the Roosevelt Institute, the James Park Morton Interfaith Award, and the Golden Plate Award from the Academy of Achievement. Dr. ElBaradei is also the recipient of a number of honorary degrees and decorations, including a Doctorate of Laws from New York University and the Nile Collar – the highest Egyptian decoration.