The Five Pillars of IslamThe Five Pillars of Islam are five religious duties expected of every Muslim. They are mentioned individually throughout the Qur’an and Muhammad (PBUH) listed them together in the Hadith when he was asked to define Islam. Fulfillment of the Five Pillars is believed to bring rewards both in this life and in the afterlife
The Testimony (or the confession) of Faith (Shahada) is to say with conviction “There is no god (deity) but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger (Prophet) of Allah”. It means that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone, and that Allah has neither partner nor son. This testimony of faith is called the Shahada. It is the most important pillar of Islam
Prayer (Salat): Muslims perform five prayers a day. Each prayer does not take more than few minutes to perform. Prayer in Islam is a direct link between the worshipper and Allah. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam and there are no priests. Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and night. They are said in Arabic, the language of the revelation. Personal supplications, however, can be offered in one's own language and at any time. Although it is preferable to worship together in a mosque, a Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices, factories, or universities
Paying the alms tax (zakat): All things belong to Allah, and wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The original meaning of the word zakat is both ‘purification’ and ‘growth’. Giving zakat means giving a specified percentage on certain properties to certain classes of needy people. The percentage which is due on gold, silver, and cash funds that have reached the amount of about 85 grams of gold and held in possession for one lunar year is two and a half percent (2.5℅). Our possessions are purified by setting aside a small portion for those in need, and, like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and encourages new growth
Fasting the Month of Ramadan (sawm): Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from dawn until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. Although the fast is beneficial to health, it is regarded principally as a method of spiritual self-purification. By cutting oneself off from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry, as well as growth in his or her spiritual life.
The Pilgrimage to Makkah(Hajj): The annual pilgrimage to Makkah is an obligation once in a lifetime for those who are physically and financially able to perform it. About two million people go to Makkah each year from every corner of the globe. Although Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual Hajj is performed in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Male pilgrims wear special simple clothes which strip away distinctions of class and culture so that all stand equal before Allah
The end of the Hajj is marked by a festival, Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers. This, and Eid al-Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the end of Ramadan, are the two annual festivals of the Muslim calendarReferenceshttp://www.islam-guide.com/ch3-16.htm